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Understanding Blood Pattern Analysis

Blood pattern analysis (BPA) evaluates and interprets blood stains at a crime scene to establish the events preceding the crime and the cause of the bleeding. Its results are often used to determine how and what was used to cause the bleeding. This technique provides insight into the activities at the crime scene. BPA uses biological, physical, and mathematical principles, which are essential in understanding the behavior of blood, its cohesion and velocity, and the angles and distances it traveled when evaluating potential crime scene activities.

Types of Blood Stains

Blood stains can be categorized into passive, transfer, and impact. Passive stains are caused by the stationary state of the injured body and the gravity acting on it. Transfer stains occur when a foreign body comes in contact with the blood stain and produces a new one. For instance, a bloody handprint on the wall as a result of interacting with the blood stain. Impact stains are formed when blood is heaved to the stained surface through the air. The type of injury can be determined by the category of the blood stain present at the crime scene. For instance, a cut on an artery often causes an impact stain.

The Importance of Blood Pattern Analysis in Solving Crimes

The information provided by forensic bloodstain pattern analysts helps investigators to validate witness statements. The information includes the origin of the blood, the object used in the assault, the number and victim's position from the perpetrator(s), and the movements that might have occurred after the assault. Analysts use this information to recreate the crime scene. The evidence is collected by photographing the blood stain and cutting out and storing the stained surfaces. In cases where further analysis, such as a DNA test, is needed, a sample is collected using a swab and safely transported to the forensic laboratory for testing.

Becoming a Forensic Blood Pattern Analyst

To become a forensic bloodstain analyst, one needs to have a degree in forensic sciences or law enforcement, get certified, and pass all the job interview tests, background checks, and qualifications required by the employer. Therefore, when hiring blood pattern analysts, check their credentials and qualifications for high-quality work. 


Blood pattern analysis is a crucial tool in solving the mysteries of crimes and validating witness statements on how the crime occurred. Blood patterns tell the story of the crime scene, and combined with excellent analysts, they quickly unravel the occurrences at the crime scene helping the justice department reach a verdict. If your loved one is involved in a mysterious crime, seek the services of professional blood pattern analysts to determine what transpired at the crime scene.

Contact a local bloodstain pattern analysis service to learn more.